Pertumbuhan Bakteri Anaerobic Ammonia Oxidation (Anammox) Pada Salinitas 2 dan 9 Persen


  • Wijanarka Wijanarka Departemen Biologi, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang
  • Sudarno Sudarno PS. Teknik Lingkungan Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia
  • Novi A. Pratama Departemen Biologi, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang



When ammonia in waste water is lost inappropriately, it  will raise an adverse environmental effect for the aquatic cycle. Anammox, anaerobic ammonia oxidation, is a novel process in which nitrite is used as an electron acceptor in the conversion of ammonium to nitrogen gas. The anammox process removes ammonium in the autrotrophic system by leaving little biomass. This study aims to analyze the effect of salinity on the growth of anammox bacteria. The samples used were from the brackish water sediments of the East Flood Canal River of Semarang. The isolation was done by gram staining and the bacteria were inoculated on media with different salinity concentration and the growth was measured using spectrophotometer. The results showed that anammox bacteria had a higher growth rate of 3% (control) when it was grown on a medium with a concentration of 9%. Anammox bacteria grown on anammox selective media showed that the bacteria were able to adapt to environments with different salinity concentrations of 2% and 9%. 

Key words: anammox, ammonium, nitrogen, anammox bacteria.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Wijanarka Wijanarka, Departemen Biologi, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang


Sudarno Sudarno, PS. Teknik Lingkungan Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia

PS. Teknik Lingkungan Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia

Novi A. Pratama, Departemen Biologi, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang

Departemen Biologi, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang


Arrigo, K.R. 2005. Marine microorganisms and global nutrient cycles. Nature. 437(7057): 349–355.

Brock, T.D., and M.T. Madigan. 1991. Biology of microorganisms. Prentice-Hall International, Inc. San Fransisco.

Chandra, B. 2006. Pengantar kesehatan lingkungan. Penerbit EGC. Jakarta.

Djatmiko, Margono dan Wahyono. 2000. Pendayagunaan industrial waste management: kajian hukum lingkungan Indonesia. PT Citra Aditya Bakti. Jakarta.

Djoko, R. 2004. Laut nusantara. Djambatan. Jakarta.

Doran, P.M. 1995. Bioprocess engineering principles. Academic Press. San Diego.

Egli, K., U. Fanger, P.J.J. Alvarez, H. Siegrist , J.R. van der Meer, and A.J.B. Zehnder. 2001. Enrichment and characterization of an anammox bacterium from a rotating biological contactor treating ammonium rich leachate. Archive of Microbiology. (175): 198-207.

Fux, C., Boehler, M., Huber, P., Brunner, I., and Siegrist, H. 2002. Biological treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater by partial nitritation and subsequent anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) in A pilot plant. Journal of Biotechnology 99(3): 295-306.

Gopireddy, V.R. 2011. Biochemical tests for the identification of bacteria. International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 3(4): 1536-1555.

Hertach, M. 2008. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) - a new sink in the marine nitrogen cycle. Hildastrasse. (4): 16.

Jawetz, Melnick, and Adelberg’s. 2004. Mikrobiologi kedokteran. Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC. Jakarta.

Jetten, M.S.M., M. Wagner, J. Fuerst, M. van Loosdrecht, G. Kuenen, and M. Strous. 2001. Microbiology and application of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation process. Current opinion in biotechnology. 12(3): 283–288.

Kartal, B., M. Koleva, R. Arsov, W. van der Star, M. Jetten, and M. Strous. 2006. Adaptation of a freshwater anammox population to high salinity wastewater. Journal of Biotechnology. 126(4): 546–553.

Kartal, B., J. Rattray, L.A. van Niftrik, J. van de Vossenberg, M.C. Schmid, R.I. Webb, S. Schouten, J.A. Fuerst, J.S. Damsté, M.S.M. Jetten, and M. Strous. 2007. Candidatus “anammoxoglobus propionicus†A new propionate oxidizing species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria. Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 30(1): 39-49.

Kartal, B., L. van Niftrik, J. Keltjens, H. Op den Camp, and M. Jetten. 2012. Anammox-growth physiology, cell biology, and metabolism. Advances in Microbial Physiology. 60: 211–262.

Karthikeyan, O.P. dan K. Joseph. 2009. “ANAMMOX†A novel process for nitrogen management in bioreactor Landfills– A review. Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai.

Kimura, B., Y. Konagaya and T. Fuji. 2009. Characterization of anaerobic ammonium oxidatiob (Annamox) bacteria from local wastewater treatment plant. [Skripsi]. Universitas Malaysia. Malaysia.

Lay, W., Y. Liu, and A. Fane. 2010. Impacts of Salinity on the performance of high retention membrane bioreactors for water reclamation: A review. Water Research. 44(1): 21–40.

Madigan, M.T., J.M. Martinko, and J. Parker. 2009. Biology of microorganisms. Pearson, San Francisco.

Mulder A., A.A. van de Graff, L.A. Robertson and J.G. Kuenen. 1995. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation discovered in a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor. FEMS Microbial Ecology. (16): 177-184.

Nybakken, J.W. 1992. Biologi laut suatu pendekatan ekologis. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta.

Odum, E.P. 1971. Fundamental of ecology. W.B. Saunders Company. Philadelphia.

Penton, C.R., A.H. Devol, and J.M. Tiedje. 2006. Molecular evidence for the broad distribution of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater and marine sediments. Applied and Enviromental Microbiology. 72(10): 6829–6832.

Reible, D. 1998. Fundamental of enviromental engineering. Lewis Publisher. New York.

Samekto, Riyo. 2009. Anammox: suatu proses baru dalam daur nitrogen yang menawarkan banyak peluang dalam pengelolaan pencemaran air akibat nitrogen. Innofarm: Jurnal Inovasi Pertanian. 8(1): 73–86.

Sheela, B. and K. Beebi. 2014. Bioremediation of ammonia from polluted waste waters. American Journal of Microbiological Research. 2(6): 201-210.

Strous, M., J.J. Heijnen, J.G. Kuenen, and M.S.M. Jetten. 1998. The sequencing batch reactor as a powerful tool for the study of slowly growing anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. (50): 589-596.

Strous, M., J.A. Fuerst, E.H.M.Kramer, S. Logemann, G. Muyzer, K.T. van de Pas-Schoonen, R. Webb, J.G. Kuenen, and M.S.M. Jetten. 1999. Missing lithotroph identified as new planctomycete. Nature. 400: 446-449.

van de Graaf, A.A., P. de Bruijn, L.A. Robertson, M.S.M. Jetten, and J.G. Kuenen. 1997. Metabolic pathway of anaerobic ammonium oxidation on the basis of 15N studies in a fluidized bed reactor. Journal Microbiology. 143(7): 2415-2421.

van Loosdrecht and M.S.M. Jetten. 1998. Microbiological conversions in nitrogen removal. Water Science Technology. 38(1): 1-7.

Wang, D.I.C., C.L. Cooney, A.L. Demain, P. Dunhill, A.E. Humprey, and M.D. Lilly. 1979. Fermentation and enzyme technology. John Wiley and Sons. New York.

Zhang L., P. Zheng C. Tang and R. Jin. 2008. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation for treatment of ammonium rich wastewaters– a review. Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University. China.






Research Articles